tr

Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters

SYNTAX
      tr [OPTION]... SET1 [SET2]

`tr' copies standard input to standard output, performing one of the
following operations:

   * translate, and optionally squeeze repeated characters in the
     result,

   * squeeze repeated characters,

   * delete characters,

   * delete characters, then squeeze repeated characters from the
     result.

   The SET1 and (if given) SET2 arguments define ordered sets of
characters, referred to below as SET1 and SET2.  These sets are the
characters of the input that `tr' operates on.  The `--complement'
(`-c') option replaces SET1 with its complement (all of the characters
that are not in SET1).

Specifying sets of characters
-----------------------------

   The format of the SET1 and SET2 arguments resembles the format of
regular expressions; however, they are not regular expressions, only
lists of characters.  Most characters simply represent themselves in
these strings, but the strings can contain the shorthands listed below,
for convenience.  Some of them can be used only in SET1 or SET2, as
noted below.

Backslash escapes
     A backslash followed by a character not listed below causes an
     error message.

    \a
          Control-G.

    \b
          Control-H.

    \f
          Control-L.

    \n
          Control-J.

    \r
          Control-M.

    \t
          Control-I.

    \v
          Control-K.

    \OOO
          The character with the value given by OOO, which is 1 to 3
          octal digits,

    \\
          A backslash.

Ranges
     The notation `M-N' expands to all of the characters from M through
     N, in ascending order.  M should collate before N; if it doesn't,
     an error results.  As an example, `0-9' is the same as
     `0123456789'.  Although GNU `tr' does not support the System V
     syntax that uses square brackets to enclose ranges, translations
     specified in that format will still work as long as the brackets
     in STRING1 correspond to identical brackets in STRING2.

Repeated characters
     The notation `[C*N]' in SET2 expands to N copies of character C.
     Thus, `[y*6]' is the same as `yyyyyy'.  The notation `[C*]' in
     STRING2 expands to as many copies of C as are needed to make SET2
     as long as SET1.  If N begins with `0', it is interpreted in
     octal, otherwise in decimal.

Character classes
     The notation `[:CLASS:]' expands to all of the characters in the
     (predefined) class CLASS.  The characters expand in no particular
     order, except for the `upper' and `lower' classes, which expand in
     ascending order.  When the `--delete' (`-d') and
     `--squeeze-repeats' (`-s') options are both given, any character
     class can be used in SET2.  Otherwise, only the character classes
     `lower' and `upper' are accepted in SET2, and then only if the
     corresponding character class (`upper' and `lower', respectively)
     is specified in the same relative position in SET1.  Doing this
     specifies case conversion.  The class names are given below; an
     error results when an invalid class name is given.

    `alnum'
          Letters and digits.

    `alpha'
          Letters.

    `blank'
          Horizontal whitespace.

    `cntrl'
          Control characters.

    `digit'
          Digits.

    `graph'
          Printable characters, not including space.

    `lower'
          Lowercase letters.

    `print'
          Printable characters, including space.

    `punct'
          Punctuation characters.

    `space'
          Horizontal or vertical whitespace.

    `upper'
          Uppercase letters.

    `xdigit'
          Hexadecimal digits.

Equivalence classes
     The syntax `[=C=]' expands to all of the characters that are
     equivalent to C, in no particular order.  Equivalence classes are
     a relatively recent invention intended to support non-English
     alphabets.  But there seems to be no standard way to define them
     or determine their contents.  Therefore, they are not fully
     implemented in GNU `tr'; each character's equivalence class
     consists only of that character, which is of no particular use.

Translating
-----------

   `tr' performs translation when SET1 and SET2 are both given and the
`--delete' (`-d') option is not given.  `tr' translates each character
of its input that is in SET1 to the corresponding character in SET2.
Characters not in SET1 are passed through unchanged.  When a character
appears more than once in SET1 and the corresponding characters in SET2
are not all the same, only the final one is used.  For example, these
two commands are equivalent:

     tr aaa xyz
     tr a z

   A common use of `tr' is to convert lowercase characters to
uppercase.  This can be done in many ways.  Here are three of them:

     tr abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
     tr a-z A-Z
     tr '[:lower:]' '[:upper:]'

   When `tr' is performing translation, SET1 and SET2 typically have
the same length.  If SET1 is shorter than SET2, the extra characters at
the end of SET2 are ignored.

   On the other hand, making SET1 longer than SET2 is not portable;
POSIX.2 says that the result is undefined.  In this situation, BSD `tr'
pads SET2 to the length of SET1 by repeating the last character of SET2
as many times as necessary.  System V `tr' truncates SET1 to the length
of SET2.

   By default, GNU `tr' handles this case like BSD `tr'.  When the
`--truncate-set1' (`-t') option is given, GNU `tr' handles this case
like the System V `tr' instead.  This option is ignored for operations
other than translation.

   Acting like System V `tr' in this case breaks the relatively common
BSD idiom:

     tr -cs A-Za-z0-9 '\012'

because it converts only zero bytes (the first element in the
complement of SET1), rather than all non-alphanumerics, to newlines.

Squeezing repeats and deleting
------------------------------

   When given just the `--delete' (`-d') option, `tr' removes any input
characters that are in SET1.

   When given just the `--squeeze-repeats' (`-s') option, `tr' replaces
each input sequence of a repeated character that is in SET1 with a
single occurrence of that character.

   When given both `--delete' and `--squeeze-repeats', `tr' first
performs any deletions using SET1, then squeezes repeats from any
remaining characters using SET2.

   The `--squeeze-repeats' option may also be used when translating, in
which case `tr' first performs translation, then squeezes repeats from
any remaining characters using SET2.

   Here are some examples to illustrate various combinations of options:

   * Remove all zero bytes:

          tr -d '\000'

   * Put all words on lines by themselves.  This converts all
     non-alphanumeric characters to newlines, then squeezes each string
     of repeated newlines into a single newline:

          tr -cs 'a-zA-Z0-9' '[\n*]'

   * Convert each sequence of repeated newlines to a single newline:

          tr -s '\n'

   * Find doubled occurrences of words in a document.  For example,
     people often write "the the" with the duplicated words separated
     by a newline.  The bourne shell script below works first by
     converting each sequence of punctuation and blank characters to a
     single newline.  That puts each "word" on a line by itself.  Next
     it maps all uppercase characters to lower case, and finally it
     runs `uniq' with the `-d' option to print out only the words that
     were adjacent duplicates.

          #!/bin/sh
          cat "$@" \
            | tr -s '[:punct:][:blank:]' '\n' \
            | tr '[:upper:]' '[:lower:]' \
            | uniq -d


Warning messages
----------------

   Setting the environment variable `POSIXLY_CORRECT' turns off the
following warning and error messages, for strict compliance with
POSIX.2.  Otherwise, the following diagnostics are issued:

  1. When the `--delete' option is given but `--squeeze-repeats' is
     not, and SET2 is given, GNU `tr' by default prints a usage message
     and exits, because SET2 would not be used.  The POSIX
     specification says that SET2 must be ignored in this case.
     Silently ignoring arguments is a bad idea.

  2. When an ambiguous octal escape is given.  For example, `\400' is
     actually `\40' followed by the digit `0', because the value 400
     octal does not fit into a single byte.


   GNU `tr' does not provide complete BSD or System V compatibility.
For example, it is impossible to disable interpretation of the POSIX
constructs `[:alpha:]', `[=c=]', and `[c*10]'.  Also, GNU `tr' does not
delete zero bytes automatically, unlike traditional Unix versions,
which provide no way to preserve zero bytes.

Related commands:

gawk - Find and Replace text within file(s)
grep - Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern

Equivalent Windows NT commands:

MUNGE - Find and Replace text within file(s)



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Simon Sheppard
SS64.com